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Home > Products > SAR Testing System > SAR & HAC test benches
Name: SAR & HAC test benches
Item: CN-SAR
Category: SAR Testing System
Profile:
 
RF Satefy
SATIMO SAR & HAC Test Benches
 
 
The proliferation of consumer mobile telecommunication equipment (MTE) has raised concerns about potential adverse health effects due to electromagnetic field exposure.For radio frequency safety purposes, international regulatory bodies and committees have elaborated standards to which MTE should comply. SATIMO offers a range of Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) and Hearing Aid Compatibility (HAC) measurement systems for the test and certifi cation of MTE.
What is SAR?
Human body will produce induction electromagnetic field with the effect of external electromagnetic field. The internal electromagnetic field will produce electric current, which will absorb and consume electromagnetic energe due to the human apparatus are all lossy dielectric. The radio frequency (RF) energy radiated by MTE is absorbed in the body and produces heat, which is carried away by the bodys thermoregulatory processes. The rate at which RF electromagnetic energy is imparted to an element or mass of a biological body is called Specific Absorption Rate (SAR). The SAR value is expressed as energy fl ow (power) per unit of mass in units of W/kg.
SAR measurement is to measure how much electromagnetic wave radiated by the MTE human (head and body) abosorb through the measurement equipment.
 
How do We Measure SAR values?
The SAR values are complex to measure as the penetration of energy within human tissues depends on many factors, such as the type of the phone, the shape of the users head or the frequency. For this reason, SAR measurements are performed in laboratory using specific instrumentation defined in the standards: head phantom, liquid, E-field probeThe measurement process consists in using a scanning system to measure the internal E-field distribution in a phantom model filled with liquid. The shape of the head and the liquids simulate the human head and tissue. The device under test emits at maximum power and is positioned according to the procedure of the standards. The E-field value is measured with a miniature E-field probe. Indeed, E-field probes are the most appropriate sensor to measure the SAR, due to their sensitivity and fast time response. The E-fi eld is calculated using the following formula:
SAR (W/Kg) = E (V/m)2/
E(V/m) being the E-field values of tissue
Sigma() being conductivity of the liquid
rho () being the density of the liquid
Finally, from the measured E-field values, the SAR distribution, the 1g and 10g mass averaged SAR values are calculated.
 
What are the Main SAR Standards?
In 1998, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) elaborated guidelines to limit exposure to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields. Based on these guidelines, in 2001, the European Community published documents to defi ne basic SAR restrictions and measurement protocols between 300 MHz and 3 GHz for handheld devices (EN 50360 and EN 50361).
In addition to the EN standard, it exists today two other major standards: the IEEE 1528 and the IEC 62209.
In 2008, the IEC 62209-2 is expanding the scope of the standard IEC 62209-1 to the frequency range of 30 MHz to 6 GHz. It will also address a broader category of devices, such as laptops or PDAs.
For base station testing, the European EN 50383 standard concerns the calculation and measurement of electromagnetic fi eld strength and SAR related to human exposure from radio base stations and fi xed terminal stations for wireless communication (110 MHz to 40 GHz).

Most countries (such as the USA, European Members,Australia, Japan or Canada) have adopted regulations that require MTE to be tested in order to ensure their compliancy to basic SAR restrictions. All these regulations are consistent with each other in the sense that they all follow almost the same methodology although the values themselves can differ.
SAR System
Item
Qty
Model
6-axis robot hand
1
STWIN6AA
6-axis robot arm
1
SPH
SAM phantom
Robot arm base
1
SSM2
SRT
Mannequin
1
SSBPT
Video positioning system
1
SVPS
Software
1
SOPENSAR
Handset test clamp
Electric field probe
1
SMPPD
SSE5
Calibration probe
2
SCE0900
Liquids
1
SHL0900
Liquids
1
SHL1800
Liquids
Reference antenna
1
SHL2000
SD0900
Reference antenna
1
SD1800
Communication antenna
1
SBBA
Multimeter
1
SKEITH
Scanner
Scanner and cable
1
SKEITHSC
SGPIB
Probe screening wire
1
SPSC
Inspection report
1
 
Calibration report
1
 
Uncertainty report
1
 
User manual
1
 
 
What are HAC Measurements?
The use of mobile phones together with hearing aid devices can cause interferences. For this reason, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has required that mobile phone compatibility with hearing aid devices be measured. This compatibility must be measured in the two modes commonly used by the hearing aid: microphone mode and telecoil mode. The FCC has set ratings in order to calculate the risks of interference:
• M Ratings concern the microphone mode.
• T Ratings concern the telecoil mode.
The American National Standards Institute adopted the ANSI C63.19 standard in 2001. According to the FCC, a large percentage of mobile phones marketed by each manufacturer should be HAC compatible(M3-4 and T3-4 Rating).
 
How do we Define HAC Rating?
The HAC rating is measured in two steps:
• RF test (HA microphone mode): measure the near-fi eld electric and magnetic fi elds emitted by the phone using an E-fi eld and H-fi eld miniature probe.
• Audio test (HA telecoil mode): measure the magnetic fi elds emitted by the phone using a T-coil probe.
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